The Kudzu program runs each time the system boots and performs a hardware probe. If new hardware is found,Kudzu attempts to map it to a kernel module. If successful, the information is saved, and the device is configured.

The Kudzu program includes an initialization script, /etc/rc.d/init.d/kudzu, which is run at boot time (unless disabled).

A list of configured hardware for the system is stored in /etc/sysconfig/hwconf, a file maintained by Kudzu.

Instead of reading /etc/sysconfig/hwconf, issue the kudzu –probe command to view the list of hardware detected by Kudzu. To narrow down the results, you can also specify the bus or class:
kudzu –probe –bus=
kudzu –probe –class=

dmidecode is determine the bios information see man page.

The kernel module allows the kernel and end-user programs to interact with the hardware.

HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer).HAL works by broadcasting a signal to the system message bus when a new device is added. Then, an application can connect to the message bus instead of the kernel to learn about the hardware. Just like Kudzu runs at boot time to detect new hardware, the HAL
daemon runs while the system is running to detect new hardware.
The HAL daemon collects information about the device from the kernel as well as other resources. This allows the system bus to send as much information as possible to the application, and the application only needs to gather information from one place.

hal-gnome package installed
hal-device-manager command.

command for moniter ddcprobe


What Is UNIX?

UNIX is not easily defined, since it is an “ideal” operating system that has been instantiated by different vendors over the years, in some quite nonstandard ways. It is also the subject of litigation, as vendors fight over the underlying intellectual property in the system.However, there are a number of features of UNIX and UNIX-like systems (such as Linux) that can be readily described. UNIX systems have a core kernel, which is responsible for managing core system operations, such as logical devices for input/output (such as /dev/pty, for pseudo-terminals), and allocating resources to carry out user-specified and system-requisite tasks. In addition, UNIX systems have a hierarchical file system that allows both relative and absolute file path naming, and is extremely flexible. UNIX file systems can be mounted locally, or remotely from a central file server. All operations on a UNIX system are carried out by processes, which may spawn child processes or other
lightweight processes to perform discrete tasks. Processes can be uniquely identified by their process ID (PID). Originally designed as a text-processing system, UNIX systems share many tools that manipulate and filter text in various ways. In addition, small, discrete utilities can be easily combined to form complete applications in rather sophisticated ways. These applications are executed from a user shell, which defines the user interface to the kernel. Although GUI environments can be constructed around the shell, they are not

UNIX is multiprocess, multiuser, and multithreaded. This means that more than one user can execute a shell and applications concurrently, and that each user can execute applications concurrently from within a single shell. Each of these applications can then create and remove lightweight processes as required. Because UNIX was created by active developers, rather than operating system gurus, there was always a strong focus on creating an operating system that suited
programmers’ needs. A Bell System Technical Journal article (“The Unix shell,” by S.R. Bourne, 1978) lists the key guiding principles of UNIX development:

• Create small, self-contained programs that perform a single task. When a new task needs to be solved, either create a new program that performs it, or combine tools from the toolset that already exists, to arrive at a solution. This is a similar orientation to the current trend toward encapsulation and independent component building (such as Enterprise Java Beans), where complicated systems are built from
smaller, interacting but logically independent modules.

• Programs should accept data from standard input and write to standard input; thus, programs can be “chained” to process each other’s output sequentially. Avoid interactive input in favor of command-line options that specify a program’s actions to be performed. Presentation should be separated from what a program
is trying to achieve. These ideas are consistent with the concept of piping, which is still fundamental to the operation of user shells. For example, the output of the ls command to list all files in a directory can be “piped” using the | symbol to a program such as grep to perform pattern matching. The number of pipes on a single command-line instruction is not limited.

• Creating a new operating system or program should be undertaken on a scale of weeks not years: the creative spirit that leads to cohesive design and implementation should be exploited. If software doesn’t work, don’t be afraid to build something better. This process of iterative revisions of programs has resurfaced in recent years with the rise of object-oriented development.

• Make best use of all the tools available, rather than asking for more help. The motivation behind UNIX is to construct an operating system that supports the kinds of toolsets required for successful development. This is not intended to be an exhaustive list of the characteristics that define UNIX; however, these features are central to understanding the importance that UNIX developers often ascribe to the operating system. It is designed to be a programmer-friendly system.

The History of UNIX :- UNIX was originally developed at Bell Laboratories as a private research project by a small group of people, starting in the late 1960s. This group had experience with research efforts on a number of different operating systems in the previous decade, and its goals with the UNIX project were to design an operating system to satisfy the objectives of transparency, simplicity, and modifiability, with the use of a new third-generation programming language. At the time of conception, typical vendor-specific operating systems were extremely large, and all written in assembly language, making them difficult to maintain. Although the first attempts to write the UNIX kernel were based on assembly language, later versions were written in a high-level language called C, which was developed during the same era. Even today, most modern operating system kernels, such as the Linux kernel, are written in C. After the kernel was developed using the first C compiler, a complete operating environment was developed, including the many utilities associated with UNIX today (e.g., the visual editor, vi). In this section, we examine the timeline leading to the development of UNIX, and the origins of the two main “flavors” of UNIX: AT&T (System V) and BSD.

[An evening in Delhi]

Dear followers
Regret for inconvenience


Now the days corruption is identification of INDIA, it’s took their origin from the corrupt culture. Corruption started as a illusion and change the image in reality and make weak the system of society. We are independent; it’s the misunderstanding of the people. It is like a tradition which has been transferring ones generation to other from a long time. Today we wake in the morning and get a sensational news once more corrupted man welcome us.

If it discover the medicine prolonging of age

My This post has dedicated to my spiritual power
Talking about prolonging might be good if it is possible by naturally, but it is damned by who are discovering medicine is Laboratory. Nature has given us beautiful life with determined limitation. We should not across that bottom line. We should not across that bottom line. Sometime people thought that if somebody are suffering from Cancer like illness, it’s not mean we should left him for die. But it also not mean to discover such medicine. Which make mankind immortal, I don’t think it will happen ever indeed. How much time we will try, but it can never be possible to ruin the Pre-determined decision of Nature. We are the puppet of super natural elements and nothing else.
Let’s think with the Scientific cause, how will scientist make immortal to the mankind, will they change the Cell system of human body, will they change the color of blood, will they change the structure of skeleton.
Nothing at all, Man can change the shape of object and elements only, but can never change the natural behavior of elements.
We should Respect & Welcome the gift of god in the face of Dead. I would like end my post with these famous lines.
********[ Zindagi to bewafa hai sath thukrayegi
Maut to dilruba hai sath le kar jayegi ]*********

Civilization In my View

When we talk about civilization, a picture view in my mind, a good place where everything is manage. Well implementation of infrastructure, high life style with hospitality & humanity. A well civilization have to follow law and order etc. because we have found this in Hadappa & Mohanzodaro ruins.
But now a day’s meaning of civilization has changed. Malls, Markets, Hotels, Roads have taken the place of above. Mechanical satisfaction is the top of the pick. The people lost the virtue of human life.
Rather than this we can’t say everything has changed. Seldom we saw some extraordinary stuff that are full of courage and free of selfishness. We should not forget we are going to be part of the super power of the World. World are looking towards us with great expectation. We should have to walked with shoulders to shoulders, we can not nourish & care of all, But It’s not mean we are careless. There are some compulsion in our life. That’s why we can not follow the moral of civilization on each step. Thank you…

* Yes u*

he, u,
yes u….